Pervasiveness Stakeholders Time Values Multi-lifespan

The Pervasiveness criterion emphasizes systemic interactions that follow from the widespread adoption of an interactive technology. Technologies can become pervasive with respect to geographic (e.g., city navigation software use within urban areas), cultural (e.g., text messaging within the deaf community), demographic (e.g., online social networking sites among teenagers), and other factors.

Drawing from Value Sensitive Design methodology, the Stakeholder criterion emphasizes the range of effects of a technology, both on those who are in direct contact with a technology (direct stakeholders), and on those who might not be direct users, but whose lives are nevertheless affected by various interactions around the technology (indirect stakeholders).

Inspired by the long-term perspective of urban planning, the Time criterion helps guide designers to consider the longer term implications of their work – implications that will only emerge after the technology has moved through initial phases of novelty to later phases of appropriation and integration into society.

The Value criterion emphasizes the impact of technology on human values. Our use of the term values draws from the Value Sensitive Design literature, “what a person or group of people consider important in life.” In interaction design, we have found values of interest to include but are not limited to: autonomy, community, cooperation,democratization, environmental sustainability, expression, fairness, human dignity, inclusivity and exclusivity, informed consent, justice, ownership, privacy, self-efficacy, security, trust, and universal access.

Multi-lifespan design is primarily concerned with significant societal problems that defy rapid solution. Genocide, HIV/AIDS, famine, deforestation, species extinction, forced exodus – these problems share some commonalities. In one way or another, they entail widespread losses to human beings, to other sentient beings, or to the natural world. The structure of these problems and their solution spaces require long periods of time to unfold. In turn, these problems call for designers to take a more proactive and long term approach to how we envision and design technology. The Multi-lifespan criterion prompts consideration and discussion of such concerns within the context of designing tools, technology, policy, and infrastructure.